A+ A A-

\(\bullet\) All the codes presented below should be written in math-mode as shown in the following Minimum Working Example (MWE):

Minimum Working Example

Minimum Working Example

Download this simple \(\LaTeX\) File

\(\bullet\) Be note that we are using only one $ for each side of the first math equation. The reason is to place that equation in the text.


I. Hats, Bars, Accents, Fractions, and Powers:

\hat{a} \check{a} \breve{a}
\acute{a} \grave{a} \tilde{a}
\bar{a} \vec{a} \dot{a}
\ddot{a} \widetilde{abc} \widehat{abc}
\overleftarrow{abc} \overrightarrow{abc} \overline{abc}
\underline{abc} \overbrace{abc} \underbrace{abc}
\frac{abc}{xyz} OR

abc \over xyz

x^{k} x_{k}


II. Greek Letters:

\Gamma \Delta \Theta
\Lambda \Xi \Pi
\Sigma \Upsilon \Phi
\Psi \Omega \alpha
\beta \gamma \delta
\epsilon \varepsilon \zeta
\eta \theta \vartheta
\iota \kappa \lambda
\mu \nu \xi
o \pi \varpi
\rho \varrho \sigma
\varsigma \tau \upsilon
\phi \varphi \chi
\psi \omega    


III. Math Symbols:

\sum \prod \coprod
\sum_{k=1}^N \prod_{i=1}^{\aleph} \coprod_{j=s}^{\Omega}
\int \oint \int_a^b
 \prime \partial  \nabla 
\frac{d y}{d x} f^{\prime} OR


\dot{y}\Big|_{x=z} \partial y \over \partial x \nabla f

\cap OR


\cup OR



\sqcup OR


\vee OR


\wedge OR


\odot OR


\otimes OR


\oplus OR


\circ OR


\ominus \oslash

\uplus OR


< >
\leq \geq \prec
\succ \preceq \succeq
\ll \gg \subset
\supset \subseteq \supseteq
\sqsubseteq \sqsupseteq   \exists
\in \notin \ni
\vdash \dashv

\perp OR


\top \smile \frown
\models \infty   \propto
\bowtie \amalg =
\equiv \sim \simeq
\asymp \approx \cong
\ni \doteq -
+ \pm \mp
\times \cdot \div

\setminus OR


\not \diamond
! \triangleleft \triangleright

\triangle OR


\bigtriangledown \mid


 \angle 7\angle{5^\circ}
\sqrt{} \sqrt{x} \sqrt[3]{65}
\emptyset \forall \wp
\hbar \imath \jmath
\ell \Im \Re
\aleph \neg    


IV. Extra Characters:

\bullet \star \wr

\ast OR


\dagger OR


\ddagger OR


\flat \natural \sharp
\S \$ \pounds 
\copyright \| \P
\clubsuit \diamondsuit \heartsuit
\spadesuit \surd \vdots
\ddots \ldots \cdots


V. Arrows:

\nearrow \searrow \nwarrow
\swarrow \rightarrow \longrightarrow
\leftarrow \longleftarrow  \leftrightarrow
\longleftrightarrow \mapsto \longmapsto
\Rightarrow \Longrightarrow \Leftarrow
\Longleftarrow \Leftrightarrow \Longleftrightarrow
\hookrightarrow \hookleftarrow \rightharpoonup
\rightharpoondown \leftharpoonup \leftharpoondown
\uparrow \downarrow \updownarrow
\Uparrow \Downarrow \Updownarrow


VI. Brackets and Parentheses:

\(\bullet\) The default symbols can be written by using the following codes:

( ) [ ]
\{ \} \lfloor \rfloor
\lceil \rceil < >
\langle \rangle / \backslash
| \|        


\(\bullet\) The size of the brackets and parentheses given above can be manually adjusted as follows:

\big( \Big( \bigg( \Bigg( \Bigg) \bigg) \Big) \big)
\big[ \Big[ \bigg[ \Bigg[ \Bigg] \bigg] \Big] \big]
\big\{ \Big\{ \bigg\{ \Bigg\{ \Bigg\} \bigg\} \Big\} \big\}
\big| \Big| \bigg| \Bigg| \Bigg| \bigg| \Big| \big|


\(\bullet\) Thus, if the equation is bigger than the height of the brackets and parentheses default sizes, then we should adjust their height. This can be done manually as follows:

[\frac{x}{y}] [\frac{x}{y}
\big[\frac{x}{y}\big] \big[\frac{x}{y}
\Big[\frac{x}{y}\Big] \Big[\frac{x}{y}
\bigg[\frac{x}{y}\bigg] \bigg[\frac{x}{y}
\Bigg[\frac{x}{y}\Bigg] \Bigg[\frac{x}{y}


\(\bullet\) The other way to adjust the sizes is to use the automatic commands as follows:

[\frac{x}{y}] [\frac{x}{y}
\left[\frac{x}{y}\right] \left[\frac{x}{y}\right.


VII. Cases and Matrices:

\(\bullet\) For cases, they are usually used to describe stepwise functions. Two MWEs are given below:

\(\bullet\) For cases, they can be written by different ways, such as using tabular and array methods as given in the following two MWEs:


VIII. Functions:

\arccos \arcsin \arctan
\arg \cos \cosh
\cot \coth \csc
\det \dim \exp
\gcd \hom \inf
\ker \lg \lim
\liminf \limsup \ln
\log \max \min
\sec \sin \sinh
\sup \tan \tanh
\cos^{-1} \sin^{-1} \tan^{-1} 
\csc^{-1} \sec^{-1} \cot^{-1}

\(\bullet\) Two simple MWEs are given below:

IX. Texts in Math-Mode:

\(\bullet\) Using the command \mathcal{} gives the following:


As can be clearly seen, \mathcal{} does not support small letters.


\(\bullet\) Using the command \mathbf{} gives the following:



\(\bullet\) Using the command \mathrm{} gives the following:



 \(\bullet\) Using the command \hbox{} gives the following:


It is obvious that the command \hbox{} displays the same font style of the command \mathrm{}. Actually, the command \hbox is used in some \(\LaTeX\) programs (such as WinEdit) when calling their built-in or ready-to-use functions \(\rightarrow\) like equations with cases (i.e., stepwise functions); as seen before.

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